The case centres on agreements between Barclays and Qatari investors during two fundraisings in June and October 2008.

Qatar Holding, part of the Qatar Investment Authority sovereign wealth fund, and Challenger, an investment vehicle of former Qatari prime minister Sheikh Hamad bin Jassim bin Jabr al-Thani, invested around 5.3 billion pounds in Barclays.

Authorities have examined whether payments from Barclays to Qatar at the same time, such as around 322 million pounds in “advisory services agreements” (ASA), alongside the $3 billion loan, were honest and properly disclosed.

Varley, 61; former Middle East and North African investment banking head Jenkins, 61; Kalaris, once the CEO of Barclays Wealth, also 61; and Boath, a 58-year-old former European head of financial institutions, were charged over disclosure of the June 2008 deal.

Varley and Jenkins face a further charge for the October deal, and a charge of ‘unlawful financial assistance’ which alleges the fundraising breached rules preventing a company lending a third party money to buy its own shares.

Chris Lucas, finance director of Barclays in 2008, is listed as a co-conspirator to the charges, but has not been charged.

A lawyer who represents Lucas declined to comment.

Jenkins, who lives in the United States, and Kalaris, who has dual-nationality, were each asked to post 500,000 pounds in bail. The other defendants were not given any bail requirements.