The new guidelines will also ensure that engineers seek to design out cyber security threats as they develop new vehicles, the government said.

“Whether we’re turning vehicles into wifi-connected hotspots or equipping them with millions of lines of code to become fully automated, it is important that they are protected against cyber-attacks,” Martin Callanan, a minister in the Department for Transport, said in a statement.

“Our key principles give advice on what organisations should do, from the board level down, as well as technical design and development considerations.”

The new guidelines include making the systems able to withstand receiving corrupt, invalid or malicious data or commands, and allowing users to delete personally identifiable data held on a vehicle’s systems.

Manufacturers must make plans for how to maintain and support security over the lifetime of the vehicle, the government said, and personal accountability for product security should be held at board level.

Alongside this, the government said it was also planning new legislation governing insurance for self-driving cars.

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