One of the next key steps will come when May’s government introduces the Great Repeal Bill.
Parliament will then begin the daunting task of deciding which EU laws to keep and which to scrap, essentially untangling four decades of EU rules now enshrined in UK legislation.
So where will the government begin? Here’s a list of just 50 things the UK will need to work out as it sets sail on its own.
The big questions
1. A new immigration system
Immigration was a key issue in the Brexit debate. After the UK withdraws from the union, a system to allow its nationals to visit, work, study and live in the EU — and vice versa — must be hammered out.
The idea of a points-based system like Australia’s has been floated, with the aim of attracting immigrants with certain skills to fill gaps in the economy.
2. Asylum seekers and refugees
But that law will no longer apply after Brexit, so those countries won’t be obliged to receive asylum seekers whom the UK wants to send back. If the UK wants to preserve the principle of Dublin III, the government must negotiate separate bilateral arrangements with each individual country.
3. A trade deal with the EU
One of the most contentious points of the Brexit debate was the UK’s trade relations with the EU. A new trade deal is expected to be one of the most difficult and important parts of the negotiations.
4. Trade deals with everyone else
Post-Brexit doors are opening for the UK to strike new trade deals with non-EU countries like the US, China, Brazil, Australia and Canada. As a member of the EU — which negotiates trade deals as a bloc — this would not have been possible.
5. Security vs. privacy
But the EU has strict data protection laws — including one directive, for example, that says EU countries must guarantee that information is stored or accessed only if the user has been informed and been given the right of refusal.
6. Law enforcement
The peculiar and pedantic
7. Working out what jam is
8. Pig semen
9. Bright lights
10. Bendy bananas
11. Footwear labeling
12. Move your horses
13. The future of football
That means once Britain’s demarcation from the EU is finally drawn, footballers looking to ply their trade in the English Premier League — or in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland — are likely to be subject to a tougher set of rules that govern transfers from outside the region.
The English Football Association in 2015 tightened the rules for non-EU players joining English teams in an effort to give indigenous players more chance.
So non-EU players had to have made a minimum number of international appearances for a top-50 country over the previous two years (the higher the ranking, the fewer the number of matches necessary).
Spanish superstar footballers, for example, may have to get the same work permits as Brazilians to play in post-Brexit England.
14. Safety at work
15. The future of coloring in
16. Noisy vehicles
17. Trade in torture instruments
The nitty gritty
18. Brits abroad
At the moment, UK nationals can turn up to an EU country, flash their passports and be granted freedom of movement within the union. But once the country pulls out of the EU, this privilege could come to an end.
19. Roaming charges
As outsiders, telecommunications companies will not be obliged to offer the same low rates to British travelers, and these rates may come down to what kind of deal the government strikes with the EU.
20. Cost of air travel
21. Air passenger rights
22. The 48-hour work week
23. Carers’ rights
24. Equal pay for agency workers
25. Part-time workers’ pension
26. Annual leave
27. Gender equality
In his 2017 spring budget speech, Chancellor of the Exchequer Philip Hammond pledged to commit £20 million ($25 million) of government funding to support a nationwide campaign to stop violence against women and girls. Hammond also reinstated the controversial “tampon tax,” a 5% tax placed on the sanitary item, which will be used to deliver an additional £12 million ($15 million) in support of women’s charities nationwide, according to Hammond.
28. Maternity leave
30. Recognition of qualifications
31. Horizon 2020
32. CO2 Emissions
33. Keeping beaches clean
34. The air we breathe
35. The fate of wild birds
36. Animal welfare
37. Save the bees
38. Getting treatment
39. Dealing with pandemics